IHC testing looks for four proteins (MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2) in your tumor. These proteins help your body’s cells work properly. About 85% of IHC tests are normal, which means that all four proteins are present in the cancer cells. IHC tests are abnormal in about 15% of tests. In these cases, one or more of these proteins are missing from the cancer cells. The majority of colon cancers are caused by chance.
The sphincter of Oddi is a circular muscle that opens and closes to control the flow of fluid exiting your pancreatic and common bile duct (drainage routes) into the duodenum (the first part of the small bowel).
The characteristic symptoms of Sjogren’s (SHOW-grins) syndrome are due to dryness of the eyes and mouth. Sjogren's syndrome often accompanies other autoimmune disorders — such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus. These diseases are marked by inflammation of your connective tissues, and it's common for people with Sjogren's syndrome to also have a connective tissue disorder.
In Sjogren's syndrome, your immune system attacks healthy tissue.
Pancreatitis is inflammation of the pancreas. The pancreas is a long, flat gland that sits tucked behind the stomach in the upper abdomen. The pancreas produces enzymes that help the digestion of food and produces insulin that helps regulate the way your body handles blood sugar. Pancreatitis can cause acute or chronic symptoms.
Gallstones are small, pebble-like substances composed of cholesterol or calcium salts that form in your gallbladder or nearby bile ducts.
Your liver produces liquid called bile. Bile contains bile salts, fatty compounds and cholesterol used to help digest fat in the food you eat. Bile produced in the liver is stored in the gallbladder which is a small pear-shaped sac located below your liver in the right upper abdomen.
A genetic test is any analysis used to look at a person’s genetic make-up. Genetic tests are usually performed on a blood sample, however tissue or cheek cell samples may also be used in some cases. The results of a genetic test can confirm or rule out a suspected genetic condition or help determine a person’s chance of developing or passing on a genetic disorder.
Genetic testing may help diagnose and treat a medical problem.
Helicobacter pylori, also known as H. pylori, is a bacteria that is commonly found in the stomach. It is present in approximately one-half of the world's population. H. pylori infections are the most common cause of stomach ulcers, and a cause of inflammation of the stomach lining. An H. pylori infection may also contribute to stomach cancers.
H. pylori is probably spread by consuming food or water contaminated with fecal matter. The stomach is generally a very hostile environment for many bacteria, but H.
Porphyria is a term that refers to a group of disorders—the porphyrias—that affect the nervous system or skin, or both. Porphyria is used in the body to make heme, the part of the blood that carries oxygen. Unused porphryin in the body is excreted in the urine and stool.
If the body produces and excretes too much porphyrin, as happens with porphyria, not enough heme remains in the body to keep a person healthy. Most porphyrias are inherited disorders, meaning they are caused by abnormalities in genes passed from parents to children. Porphyria can be triggered by drugs such as barbiturates, tranquilizers, birth control pills, and sedatives.
Gastritis is inflammation of the lining of the stomach. Gastritis may occur suddenly (acute gastritis) or it can occur slowly over time (chronic gastritis). In some cases, gastritis can lead to ulcers and an increased risk of stomach cancer. For most people, however, gastritis isn't serious and improves quickly with treatment.
Gastritis may be caused by a variety of factors including drinking too much alcohol, prolonged use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin or ibuprofen, or infection with bacteria such as Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). Sometimes gastritis develops after major surgery, traumatic injury, burns, or severe infections.
Everyone has gas. Burping and “passing gas” is normal. You swallow air every time you eat or drink. You may also swallow air when you're nervous, eat too fast, chew gum or drink through a straw. Some of that air finds its way into your lower digestive tract. But most lower intestinal gas is produced when bacteria in your colon ferment carbohydrates that aren't digested in your small intestine.
Most of the time, gas in the body is odorless. The odor of passed gas comes from sulfur made by bacteria in the large intestine. Sometimes gas causes bloating and pain. Not everyone has these symptoms.